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Theogony by Hesiod


 Theogony is a poem written by Hesiod circa 750 BCE. It is a priceless piece of literature because it faithfully recounts the origins of the ancient Greek gods and goddesses. The relationships between the Immortals are convoluted and sometimes confusing but we must simply accept the facts as they are presented by Hesiod and try to understand this ancient religion as best we can.

[lines 1-4] From the Helikonian Muses let us begin to sing, who hold the great and holy mount of Helikon, and dance on soft feet about the deep-blue spring and the altar of the almighty son of Kronos,

[lines 5-9] and, when they have washed their tender bodies in Permessus or in the Horse's Spring or Olmeios, make their fair, lovely dances upon highest Helikon and move with vigorous feet. Then they arise and go abroad by night,

[lines 10-14] veiled in thick mist, and utter their song with lovely voice, praising Zeus the aegis-holder and queenly Hera of Argos who walks on golden sandals and the daughter of Zeus the aegis-holder bright-eyed Athene, and Phoibos Apollon, and Artemis who delights in arrows,

[lines 15-19] and Poseidon the Earth-Holder who shakes the earth, and reverend Themis and quick-glancing Aphrodite, and Hebe with the crown of gold, and fair Dione, Leto, Iapetos, and Kronos the crafty counselor, Eos [Dawn] and great Helios [Sun] and bright Selene [Moon],

[lines 20-24] Gaia [Earth] too, and great Okeanos [Ocean], and dark Nyx [Night], and the holy race of all the other deathless ones that are forever. And one day they taught Hesiod glorious song while he was shepherding his lambs under holy Helkon, and this word first the goddesses said to me—the Muses of Olympos, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis:

[lines 25-29] "Shepherds of the wilderness, wretched things of shame, mere bellies, we know how to speak many false things as though they were true; but we know, when we will, to utter true things." So said the ready-voiced daughters of great Zeus, and they plucked and gave

[lines 30-34] me a rod, a shoot of sturdy laurel, a marvelous thing, and breathed into me a divine voice to celebrate things that shall be and things there were aforetime; and they bade me sing of the race of the blessed gods that are eternally, but ever to sing of themselves both first and last. But why all this about oak or stone? [i.e. Why enlarge on irrelevant topics?]

[lines 35-39] Come, let us begin with the Muses who gladden the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympos with their songs, telling of things that are and that shall be and that were aforetime with consenting voice. Unwearying flows the sweet sound

[lines 40-44] from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympos resound, and the homes of the Immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods

[lines 45-49] from the beginning, those whom Gaia [Earth] and wide Ouranos [Heaven] begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the gods and supreme in power.

[lines 50-54] And again, they chant the race of men and strong Giants, and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympos,—the Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder. Them in Pieria did Mnemosyne [Memory], who reigns over the hills of Eleuther, bear of union with the father, the son of Kronos,

[lines 55-59] a forgetting of ills and a rest from sorrow. For nine nights did wise Zeus lie with her, entering her holy bed remote from the Immortals. And when a year was passed and the seasons came round as the months waned, and many days were accomplished,

[lines 60-64] she bare nine daughters, all of one mind, whose hearts are set upon song and their spirit free from care, a little way from the topmost peak of snowy Olympos. There are their bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Graces and Himeros [Desire] live

[lines 65-69] in delight. And they, uttering through their lips a lovely voice, sing the laws of all and the goodly ways of the Immortals, uttering their lovely voice. Then they went to Olympos, delighting in their sweet voice, with heavenly song, and the dark earth resounded

[lines 70-74] about them as they chanted, and a lovely sound rose up beneath their feet as they went to their father. And he was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Kronos; and he distributed fairly to the Immortals their portions and declared their privileges.

[lines 75-79] These things, then, the Muses sang who dwell on Olympos, nine daughters begotten by great Zeus, Kleio and Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene and Terpsichore, and Erato and Polyhymnia and Ourania and Kalliope, who is the most important of them all,

[lines 80-84] for she attends on worshipful princes; whomsoever of heaven-nourished princes the daughters of great Zeus honor, and behold him at his birth, they pour sweet dew upon his tongue, and from his lips flow gracious words. All the people

[lines 85-89] look towards him while he settles causes with true judgments; and he, speaking surely, would soon make wise end even of a great quarrel; for therefore are there princes wise in heart, because when the people are being misguided in their assembly, they set right the matter again

[lines 90-94] with ease, persuading them with gentle words. And when he passes through a gathering, they greet him as a god with gentle reverence, and he is conspicuous amongst the assembled; such is the holy gift of the Muses to men. For it is through the Muses and far-shooting Apollon that

[lines 95-99] there are singers and harpers upon the earth; but princes are of Zeus, and happy is he whom the Muses love; sweet flows speech from his mouth. For though a man have sorrow and grief in his newly-troubled soul and live in dread because his heart is distressed, yet, when a singer,

[lines 100-104] the servant of the Muses, chants the glorious deeds of men of old and the blessed gods who inhabit Olympos, at once he forgets his heaviness and remembers not his sorrows at all; but the gifts of the goddesses soon turn him away from these. Hail, children of Zeus! Grant lovely song

[lines 105-109] and celebrate the holy race of the deathless gods who are forever, those that were born of Gaia [Earth] and starry Ouranos [Heaven] and gloomy Nyx [Night] and them that briny Pontos [Sea] did rear. Tell how at the first gods and earth came to be, and rivers, and the boundless sea with its raging swell,

[lines 110-114] and the gleaming stars, and the wide heaven above, and the gods who were born of them, givers of good things, and how they divided their wealth, and how they shared their honors amongst them, and also how at the first they took many-folded Olympos. These things declare to me from the beginning, you Muses who dwell in the house of Olympos,

[lines 115-119] and tell me which of them first came to be. Verily at the first Chaos came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia [Earth], the ever-sure foundations of all the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympos, and dim Tartaros [the Pit] in the depth of the wide-pathed Gaia,

[lines 120-124] and Eros [Love], fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them. From Chaos came forth Erebos [the Darkness Under the Earth] and black Nyx [Night]; but of Nyx were born Aither [Upper Air] and Hemera [Day],

[lines 125-129] whom she conceived and bare from union in love with Erebos [the Darkness Under the Earth]. And Gaia [Earth] first bare starry Ouranos [Heaven], equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. And she brought forth long Ourea [Mountains], graceful haunts

[lines 130-134] of the Goddess-Nymphs who dwell amongst the glens of the hills. She bare also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontos [Sea], without sweet union of love. But afterwards she lay with Ouranos [Heaven] and bare deep-swirling Okeanos [Ocean], Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos,

[lines 135-139] Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Kronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire. And again, she bare the Cyclops [Orb-Eyed], overbearing in spirit,

[lines 140-144] Brontes [Thunderer], and Steropes [Lightener] and stubborn-hearted Arges [Vivid One], who gave Zeus the thunder and made the thunderbolt; in all else they were like the gods,

[lines 145-149] but one eye only was set in the midst of their fore-heads. And they were surnamed Cyclops because one orbed eye was set in their foreheads. Strength and might and craft were in their works. And again, three other sons were born of Gaia [Earth] and Ouranos [Heaven], great and doughty beyond telling, Kottos and Briareos [Obriareus] and Gyes, presumptuous children.

[lines 150-154] From their shoulders sprang a hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. For of all the children that were born of Gaia [Earth] and Ouranos [Heaven],

[lines 155-159] these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father from the first. And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Gaia [Earth] so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light; and Ouranos [Heaven] rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Gaia

[lines 160-164] groaned within, being straitened, and she thought a crafty and evil ploy. Without delay she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart:

[lines 165-169] "My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things." So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Kronos the wily took courage and answered his dear mother:

[lines 170-174] "Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of doing shameful things." So he said; and vast Gaia [Earth] rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands

[lines 175-179] a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot. And Ouranos [Heaven] came, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Gaia [Earth] spreading himself full upon her. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle

[lines 180-184] with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Gaia [Earth] received, and as the seasons moved round

[lines 185-189] she bare the strong Erinys [punisher of the unfaithful] and the great Giants with gleaming armor, holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphs whom they call Meliae all over the boundless earth. And as soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea,

[lines 190-194] they were swept away over the main a long time; and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden. First she drew near holy Kythera, and from there, afterwards, she came to sea-girt Kypros [Cyprus], and came forth an awful and lovely goddess, and grass

[lines 195-199] grew up about her beneath her shapely feet. Gods and men call her Aphrodite, and the foam-born goddess and rich-crowned Kytherea, because she grew amid the foam, and Kytherea because she reached Kythera, and Kyprogenes because she was born in billowy Kypros,

[lines 200-204] and Philommedes [Member-Loving] because sprang from the members. And with her went Eros [Love], and comely Himeros [Desire] followed her at her birth at the first and as she went into the assembly of the gods. This honor she has from the beginning, and this is the portion allotted to her amongst men and undying gods,—

[lines 205-209] the whisperings of maidens and smiles and deceits with sweet delight and love and graciousness. But these sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos [Heaven] used to call Titans [Strainers] in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously

[lines 210-214] a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards. And Nyx [Night] bare hateful Moira [Doom] and black Kera [Fate] and Thanatos [Death], and she bare Hypnos [Sleep] and the Oneiroi [tribe of Dreams]. And again the goddess murky Nyx, though she lay with none, bare Momos [Blame] and painful Oizys [Woe],

[lines 215-219] and the Hesperides who guard the rich, golden apples and the trees bearing fruit beyond glorious Okeanos [Ocean]. Also she bare the Moirai [Destinies] and ruthless avenging Fates, Klotho [Spinner] and Lachesis [Disposer of Lots] and Atropos [she who cannot be turned], who give men at their birth both evil and good to have,

[lines 220-224] and they pursue the transgressions of men and of gods; and these goddesses never cease from their dread anger until they punish the sinner with a sore penalty. Also deadly Nyx [Night] bare Nemesis [Indignation] to afflict mortal men, and after her, Apate [Deceit] and Philotes [Friendship]

[lines 225-229] and hateful Geras [Old Age] and hard-hearted Eris [Discord or Strife]. But abhorred Eris bare painful Ponos [Toil] and Lethe [Forgetfulness] and Limos [Starvation] and tearful Algea [Pains], Hysminai [Fightings] also, Machai [Battles], Phonoi [Murders], Androktasias [Manslaughters], Neikea [Grievances], Logoi [Lies], Amphillogias [Disputes],

[lines 230-234] Dysnomia [Lawlessness] and Ate [Ruin], all of one nature, and Horkos [Oath] who most troubles men upon earth when anyone willfully swears a false oath. And Pontos [Sea] begat Nereus, the eldest of his children, who is true and lies not; and men call him the Old Man

[lines 235-239] because he is trusty and gentle and does not forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and kindly thoughts. And yet again he got great Thaumas and proud Phorkys, being mated with Gaia [Earth], and fair-cheeked Keto and Eurybia who has a heart of flint within her.

[lines 240-244] And of Nereus and rich-haired Doris, daughter of Okeanos [Ocean] the perfect river, were born children, passing lovely amongst goddesses, Ploto, Eukrante, Sao, and Amphitrite, and Eudora, and Thetis, Galene and Glauke,

[lines 245-249] Kymothoe, Speio, Thoe and lovely Halie, and Pasithea, and Erato, and rosy-armed Eunike, and gracious Melite, and Eulimene, and Agaue, Doto, Proto, Pherousa, and Dynamene, and Nesaie, and Aktaie, and Protomedea,

[lines 250-254] Doris, Panope, and comely Galatea, and lovely Hippothoe, and rosy-armed Hipponoe, and Kymodoke who with Kymatolege and Amphitrite easily calms the waves upon the misty sea and the blasts of raging winds,

[lines 255-259] and Kymo, and Eione, and rich-crowned Alimede, and Glaukonome, fond of laughter, and Pontoporeia, Leagore, Euagore, and Laomedea, and Polynoe, and Autonoe, and Lysianassa, and Euarne, lovely of shape and without blemish of form,

[lines 260-264] and Psamathe of charming figure and divine Menippe, Neso, Eupompe, Themisto, Pronoe, and Nemertes who has the nature of her deathless father. These fifty daughters sprang from blameless Nereus, skilled in excellent crafts.

[lines 265-269] And Thaumas wedded Elektra the daughter of deep-flowing Okeanos [Ocean], and she bare him swift Iris and the long-haired Harpies, Aello [Storm-Swift] and Okypetes [Swift-Flier] who on their swift wings keep pace with the blasts of the winds and the birds; for quick as time they dart along.

[lines 270-274] And again, Keto bare to Phorkys the fair-cheeked Graiai, sisters grey from their birth; and both deathless gods and men who walk on earth call them Graiai, Pemphredo well-clad, and saffron-robed Enyo, and the Gorgons who dwell beyond glorious Okeanos [Ocean]

[lines 275-279] in the frontier land towards Nyx [Night] where are the clear-voiced Hesperides, Sthenno, and Euryale, and Medusa who suffered a woeful fate; she was mortal, but the two were undying and grew not old. With her lay the Dark-Haired One [Poseidon] in a soft meadow amid spring flowers.

[lines 280-284] And when Perseus cut off her head, there sprang forth great Chrysaor and the horse Pegasos who is so called because he was born near the springs [πηγàε] of Okeanos [Ocean]; and that other, because he held a golden blade [áορ] in his hands. Now Pegasos flew away and left the earth, the mother of flocks,

[lines 285-289] and came to the deathless gods; and he dwells in the house of Zeus and brings to wise Zeus the thunder and lightning. But Chrysaor was joined in love to Kallirhoe, the daughter of glorious Okeanos [Ocean], and begot three-headed Geryon. Him mighty Herakles slew

[lines 290-294] in sea-girt Erytheia by his shambling oxen on that day when he drove the wide-browed oxen to holy Tiryns, and had crossed the ford of Okeanos [Ocean] and killed Orthos and Eurytion the herdsman in the dim stead out beyond glorious Okeanos.

[lines 295-299] And in a hollow cave she bare another monster, irresistible, in no wise like either to mortal men or to the undying gods, even the goddess fierce Echidna who is half a Nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin,

[lines 300-304] eating raw flesh beneath the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in; and she keeps guard in Arima beneath the earth, grim Echidna,

[lines 305-309] a Nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days. Men say that Typhaon the terrible, outrageous and lawless, was joined in love to her, the maid with glancing eyes. So she conceived and brought forth fierce offspring; first she bare Orthos the hound of Geryon,

[lines 310-314] and then again she bare a second, a monster not to be overcome and that may not be described, Kerberos who eats raw flesh, the brazen-voiced hound of Hades, fifty-headed, relentless and strong. And again she bore a third, the evil-minded Hydra of Lerna, whom the goddess, white-armed Hera nourished,

[lines 315-319] being angry beyond measure with the mighty Herakles. And her Herakles, the son of Zeus, of the house of Amphitryon, together with warlike Iolaos, destroyed with the unpitying sword through the plans of Athene the Spoil-Driver. She was the mother of Chimaira who breathed raging fire,

[lines 320-324] a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snake, a fierce dragon; in her forepart she was a lion; in her hind-part, a dragon; and in her middle, a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire.

[lines 325-329] Her did Pegasos and noble Bellerophontes slay; but Echidna was subject in love to Orthos and brought forth the deadly Sphinx that destroyed the Kadmeans, and the Nemean lion, which Hera, the good wife of Zeus, brought up and made to haunt the hills of Nemea, a plague to men.

[lines 330-334] There he preyed upon the tribes of her own people and had power over Tretus of Nemea and Apesas; yet the strength of stout Heracles overcame him. And Keto was joined in love to Phorkys and bare her youngest, the awful snake who guards

[lines 335-339] the apples all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at its great bounds. This is the offspring of Keto and Phorkys. And Tethys bare to Okeanos [Ocean] eddying Rivers, Neilos, and Alpheios, and deep-swirling Eridanos, Strymon, and Maiandros, and the fair stream of Ister,

[lines 340-344] and Phasis, and Rhesos, and the silver eddies of Acheloios, Nessos, and Rhodios, Haliakmon, and Heptaporos, Granikos, and Aisepos, and holy Simois, and Peneios, and Hermos, and Kaikos's fair stream, and great Sangarios, Ladon, Parthenios,

[lines 345-349] Euenos, Ardeskos, and divine Skamandros. Also she brought forth a holy company of daughters who with the lord Apollon and the Rivers have youths in their keeping—to this charge Zeus appointed them—Peitho, and Admete, and Ianthe, and Elektra,

[lines 350-354] and Doris, and Prymno, and Ourania divine in form, Hippo, Klymene, Rhodeia, and Kallirhoe, Zeuxo and Klytie, and Idyia, and Pasithoe, Plexaura, and Galaxaura, and lovely Dione, Melobosis and Thoe and handsome Polydora,

[lines 355-359] Kerkeis lovely of form, and soft eyed Plouto, Perse, Ianeira, Akaste, Xanthe, Petraia the fair, Menestho, and Europa, Metis, and Eurynome, and Telesto saffron-clad, Chryseis and Asia and charming Kalypso,

[lines 360-364] Eudora, and Tyche, Amphirho, and Okyrhoe, and Styx who is the most important of them all. These are the eldest daughters that sprang from Okeanos [Ocean] and Tethys; but there are many besides. For there are three thousand neat-ankled daughters of Okeanos who are dispersed far and wide,

[lines 365-369] and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters, children who are glorious among goddesses. And as many other rivers are there, babbling as they flow, sons of Okeanos [Ocean], whom queenly Tethys bare, but their names it is hard for a mortal man to tell,

[lines 370-374] but people know those by which they severally dwell. And Theia was subject in love to Hyperion and bare great Helios [Sun] and clear Selene [Moon] and Eos [Dawn] who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless gods who live in the wide heaven.

[lines 375-379] And Eurybia, bright goddess, was joined in love to Krios and bare great Astraios, and Pallas, and Perses who also was eminent among all men in wisdom. And Eos [Dawn] bare to Astraios the strong-hearted winds, brightening Zephyros [West Wind], and Boreas [North Wind], headlong in his course,

[lines 380-384] and Notos [South Wind],—a goddess mating in love with a god. And after these Erigenia [Early-Born] bare the star Eosphorus [Dawn-Bringer], and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned. And Styx the daughter of Okeanos [Ocean] was joined to Pallas and bare Zelos [Rivalry or Emulation] and trim-ankled Nike [Victory] in the house. Also she brought forth

[lines 385-389] Kratos [Strength] and Bia [Force], wonderful children. These have no house apart from Zeus, nor any dwelling nor path except that wherein Zeus leads them, but they dwell always with Zeus the loud-thunderer. For so did Styx the deathless daughter of Okeanos [Ocean] plan

[lines 390-394] on that day when the Olympian Lightener called all the deathless gods to great Olympos, and said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titans, he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods.

[lines 395-399] And he declared that he who was without office or right under Kronos, should be raised to both office and rights as is just. So deathless Styx came first to Olympos with her children through the wit of her dear father. And Zeus honored her, and gave her very great gifts,

[lines 400-404] for her he appointed to be the great oath of the gods, and her children to live with him always. And as he promised, so he performed fully unto them all. But he himself mightily reigns and rules. Again, Phoibe came to the desired embrace of Koeus.

[lines 405-409] Then the goddess through the love of the god conceived and brought forth dark-gowned Leto, always mild, kind to men and to the deathless gods, mild from the beginning, gentlest in all Olympos. Also she bare Asteria of happy name, whom Perses once

[lines 410-414] led to his great house to be called his dear wife. And she conceived and bare Hekate whom Zeus the son of Kronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven,

[lines 415-419] and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hekate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably,

[lines 420-424] and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Gaia [Earth] and Ouranos [Heaven] amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Kronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods:

[lines 425-429] but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea. Also, because she is an only child, the goddess receives not less honor, but much more still, for Zeus honors her. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances; she sits by worshipful kings in judgment,

[lines 430-434] and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.

[lines 435-439] Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them; and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will:

[lines 440-444] and to those whose business is in the grey uncomfortable sea, and who pray to Hekate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker [Poseidon], easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock.

[lines 445-449] The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods.

[lines 450-454] And the son of Kronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Eos [Dawn]. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honors. But Rheia was subject in love to Kronos and bare splendid children, Histia, Demeter, and gold-shod Hera

[lines 455-459] and strong Hades, pitiless in heart, who dwells under the earth, and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker [Poseidon], and wise Zeus, father of gods and men, by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken. These great Kronos swallowed as each

[lines 460-464] came forth from the womb to his mother's knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Ouranos [Heaven] should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from Gaia [Earth] and starry Ouranos that he was destined to be overcome by his own son,

[lines 465-469] strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus. Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children; and unceasing grief seized Rheia. But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men,

[lines 470-474] then she besought her own dear parents, Gaia [Earth] and starry Ouranos [Heaven], to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution might overtake great, crafty Kronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter,

[lines 475-479] and told her all that was destined to happen touching Kronos the king and his stout-hearted son. So they sent her to Lyktos, to the rich land of Crete, when she was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children. Him did vast Gaia [Earth] receive from Rheia

[lines 480-484] in wide Crete to nourish and to bring up. Thither came Gaia [Earth] carrying him swiftly through the black night to Lyktos first, and took him in her arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aegeum; but to the mightily ruling son of Ouranos [Heaven], the earlier king of the gods,

[lines 485-489] she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly; wretch! he knew not in his heart that in place of the stone his son was left behind, unconquered and untroubled,

[lines 490-494] and that he was soon to overcome him by force and might and drive him from his honors, himself to reign over the deathless gods. After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly, and as the years rolled on, great Kronos the wily was beguiled by the deep suggestions of Gaia [Earth],

[lines 495-499] and brought up again his offspring, vanquished by the arts and might of his own son, and he vomited up first the stone which he had swallowed last. And Zeus set it fast in the wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under the glens of

[lines 500-504] Parnassos, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men. And he set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father, sons of Ouranos [Heaven] whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And they remembered to be grateful to him for his kindness, and gave him thunder and the glowing thunderbolt

[lines 505-509] and lightening; for before that, huge Gaia [Earth] had hidden these. In them he trusts and rules over mortals and immortals. Now Iapetos took to wife the neat-ankled maid Klymene, daughter of Okeanos [Ocean], and went up with her into one bed. And she bare him a stout-hearted son, Atlas:

[lines 510-514] also she bare very glorious Menoetius and clever Prometheus, full of various wiles, and scatter-brained Epimetheus who from the first was a mischief to men who eat bread; for it was he who first took of Zeus the woman, the maiden [Pandora] whom he had formed. But Menoetius was outrageous, and far-seeing Zeus

[lines 515-519] struck him with a lurid thunderbolt and sent him down to Erebos [the Darkness Under the Earth] because of his mad presumption and exceeding pride. And Atlas through hard constraint upholds the wide heaven with unwearying head and arms, standing at the borders of the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides;

[lines 520-524] for this lot wise Zeus assigned to him. And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew

[lines 525-529] as much again everyway as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day. That bird Herakles, the valiant son of shapely-ankled Alkmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetos from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction—not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high,

[lines 530-534] that the glory of Herakles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honored his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched himself in wit with the almighty son of Kronos.

[lines 535-539] For when the gods and mortal men had a dispute at Mekone, even then Prometheus was eager to cut up a great ox and set portions before them, trying to befool the mind of Zeus. Before the rest he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide, covering them with an ox paunch;

[lines 540-544] but for Zeus he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods said to him: "Son of Iapetos, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!"

[lines 545-549] So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his cunning trick: "Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take which ever of these portions your heart within you bids."

[lines 550-554] So he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to his spirit

[lines 555-559] when he saw the white ox-bones craftily tricked out; and because of this the tribes of men upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed and said to him: "Son of Iapetos, clever above all!

[lines 560-564] So, sir, you have not yet forgotten your cunning arts!" So spoke Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is everlasting; and from that time he was always mindful of the trick, and would not give the power of unwearying fire to the Melian race of mortal men who live on the earth.

[lines 565-569] But the noble son of Iapetos outwitted him and stole the far-seen gleam of unwearying fire in a hollow fennel stalk. And Zeus who thunders on high was stung in spirit, and his dear heart was angered when he saw amongst men the far-seen ray of fire.

[lines 570-574] Immediately he made an evil thing for men as the price of fire; for the very famous Limping God [Hephaistos] formed of earth the likeness of a shy maiden as the son of Kronos willed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene girded and clothed her with silvery raiment, and down from her head

[lines 575-579] she spread with her hands a broidered veil, a wonder to see; and she, Pallas Athene, put about her head lovely garlands, flowers of new-grown herbs. Also she put upon her head a crown of gold that the very famous Limping God [Hephaistos] made himself

[lines 580-584] and worked with his own hands as a favor to Zeus his father. On it was much curious work, wonderful to see; for of the many creatures which the land and sea rear up, he put most upon it, wonderful things, like living beings with voices; and great beauty shone out from it.

[lines 585-589] But when he had made the beautiful evil to be the price for the blessing, he brought her out, delighting in the finery which the bright-eyed daughter of a mighty father had given her, to the place where the other gods and men were. And wonder took hold of the deathless gods and mortal men when they saw that which was sheer guile, not to be withstood by men.

[lines 590-594] For from her is the race of women and female kind; of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth. And as in thatched hives bees

[lines 595-599] feed the drones whose nature is to do mischief—by day and throughout the day until the sun goes down the bees are busy and lay the white combs, while the drones stay at home in the covered hives and reap the toil of others into their own bellies—

[lines 600-604] even so Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil. And he gave them a second evil to be the price for the good they had; whoever avoids marriage and the sorrows that women cause, and will not wed, reaches deadly old age

[lines 605-609] without anyone to tend his years, and though he at least has no lack of livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them. And as for the man who chooses the lot of marriage and takes a good wife suited to his mind, evil continually contends with good;

[lines 610-614] for whoever happens to have mischievous children, lives always with unceasing grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this evil cannot be healed. So it is not possible to deceive or go beyond the will of Zeus; for not even the son of Iapetos, kindly Prometheus,

[lines 615-619] escaped his heavy anger, but of necessity strong bands confined him, although he knew many a wile. But when first their father was vexed in his heart with Obriareus [Briareos] and Kottos and Gyes, he bound them in cruel bonds, because he was jealous of their exceeding manhood and comeliness

[lines 620-624] and great size; and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth, where they were afflicted, being set to dwell under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its great borders, in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart. But the son of Kronos and the other deathless gods

[lines 625-629] whom rich-haired Rheia bare from union with Kronos, brought them up again to the light at Gaia's [Earth's] advising. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves.

[lines 630-634] For the Titan gods and as many as sprang from Kronos had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titans from high Othyrs, but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rheia bare in union with Kronos, from Olympos.

[lines 635-639] So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced. But when he had provided those three with all things fitting,

[lines 640-644] nectar and ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when their proud spirit revived within them all after they had fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it was that the father of men and gods spoke amongst them: "Hear me, bright children of Gaia [Earth] and Ouranos [Heaven],

[lines 645-649] that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Kronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and

[lines 650-654] face the Titans in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels." So he said. And blameless Kottos answered him again:

[lines 655-659] "Divine one, you speak that which we know well; even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom. And through your devising we have come back again from the murky gloom and from our merciless bonds,

[lines 660-664] enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Kronos. And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titans in hard battle." So he said; and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when

[lines 665-669] they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Kronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength

[lines 670-674] whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebos beneath the earth. A hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the Titans in grim strife,

[lines 675-679] holding huge rocks in their strong hands. And on the other part the Titans eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at one time showed the work of their hands and their might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly; wide Ouranos [Heaven] was shaken and

[lines 680-684] groaned, and high Olympos reeled from its foundation under the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartaros [the Pit] and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another,

[lines 685-689] and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle cry. Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but here his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From heaven and from Olympos

[lines 690-694] he came immediately, hurling his lightning; the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about.

[lines 695-699] All the land seethed, and Okeanos's [Ocean's] streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapor lapped round the earthborn Titans; flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air; the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that they were strong.

[lines 700-704] Astounding heat seized Chaos; and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Gaia [Earth] and wide Ouranos [Heaven] above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Gaia were being hurled to ruin, and Ouranos from on high were hurling her down;

[lines 705-709] so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangor and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. A horrible uproar

[lines 710-714] of terrible strife arose; mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war. And amongst the foremost Kottos and Briareos [Obriareus] and Gyes insatiate for war

[lines 715-719] raised fierce fighting; three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit,

[lines 720-724] as far beneath the earth as heaven is above earth; for so far is it from earth to Tartaros [the Pit]. For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth; and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days

[lines 725-729] would reach Tartaros [the Pit] upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus, who drives the clouds the Titan gods

[lines 730-734] are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There, Gyes and Kottos and great-souled Obriareus [Briareos]

[lines 735-739] live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis. And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of gloomy earth and misty Tartaros [the Pit] and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor.

[lines 740-744] It is a great gulf, and if once a man were within the gates, he would not reach the floor until a whole year had reached its end, but cruel blast upon blast would carry him this way and that. And this marvel is awful even to the deathless gods. There stands the awful home of murky Nyx [Night]

[lines 745-749] wrapped in dark clouds. In front of it the son of Iapetos [Atlas] stands immovably upholding the wide heaven upon his head and unwearying hands, where Nyx [Night] and Hemera [Day] draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold

[lines 750-754] of bronze; and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door. And the house never holds them both within; but always one is without the house passing over the earth, while the other stays at home and waits until the time for her journeying come;

[lines 755-759] and the one holds all-seeing light for them on earth, but the other holds in her arms Hypnos [Sleep] the brother of Thanatos [Death], even evil Nyx [Night], wrapped in a vaporous cloud. And there the children of dark Nyx have their dwellings, Hypnos and Thanatos, awful gods.

[lines 760-764] Glowing Helios [Sun] never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven. And the former of them roams peacefully over the earth and the sea's broad back and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him

[lines 765-769] is pitiless as bronze; whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast; and he is hateful even to the deathless gods. There, in front, stand the echoing halls of the god of the lower-world, strong Hades, and of awful Persephone. A fearful hound guards the house in front,

[lines 770-774] pitiless, and he has a cruel trick. On those who go in he fawns with his tail and both is ears, but suffers them not to go out back again, but keeps watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone.

[lines 775-779] And there dwells the goddess loathed by the deathless gods, terrible Styx, eldest daughter of back-flowing Okeanos [Ocean]. She lives apart from the gods in her glorious house vaulted over with great rocks and propped up to heaven all round with silver pillars.

[lines 780-784] Rarely does the daughter of Thaumas, swift-footed Iris, come to her with a message over the sea's wide back. But when strife and quarrel arise among the deathless gods, and when any of them who live in the house of Olympos lies, then Zeus sends Iris to bring in a golden jug the great oath of the gods

[lines 785-789] from far away, the famous cold water which trickles down from a high and beetling rock. Far under the wide-pathed earth a branch of Okeanos [Ocean] flows through the dark night out of the holy stream, and a tenth part of his water is allotted to her.

[lines 790-794] With nine silver-swirling streams he winds about the earth and the sea's wide back, and then falls into the main; but the tenth flows out from a rock, a sore trouble to the gods. For whoever of the deathless gods that hold the peaks of snowy Olympos pours a libation of her water is forsworn,

[lines 795-799] lies breathless until a full year is completed, and never comes near to taste ambrosia and nectar, but lies spiritless and voiceless on a strewn bed; and a heavy trance overshadows him. But when he has spent a long year in his sickness,

[lines 800-804] another penance and a harder follows after the first. For nine years he is cut off from the eternal gods and never joins their councils of their feasts, nine full years. But in the tenth year he comes again to join the assemblies of the deathless gods who live in the house of Olympos.

[lines 805-809] Such an oath, then, did the gods appoint the eternal and primeval water of Styx to be; and it spouts through a rugged place. And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of the dark earth and misty Tartaros [the Pit] and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven,

[lines 810-814] loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor. And there are shining gates and an immoveable threshold of bronze having unending roots and it is grown of itself. And beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titans, beyond gloomy Chaos.

[lines 815-819] But the glorious allies of loud-crashing Zeus have their dwelling upon Okeanos's [Ocean's] foundations, even Kottos and Gyes; but Briareos [Obriareus], being goodly, the deep-roaring Earth-Shaker [Poseidon] made his son-in-law, giving him Kymopolea his daughter to wed.

[lines 820-824] But when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Gaia [Earth] bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartaros [the Pit], by the aid of golden Aphrodite. Strength was with his hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring. From his shoulders

[lines 825-829] grew a hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and from under the brows of his eyes in his marvelous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads

[lines 830-834] which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at another, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear;

[lines 835-839] and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the high mountains re-echoed. And truly a thing past help would have happened on that day, and he would have come to reign over mortals and immortals, had not the father of men and gods been quick to perceive it. But he thundered hard and mightily; and the earth around

[lines 840-844] resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea and Okeanos's [Ocean's] streams and the nether parts of the earth. Great Olympos reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat. And through the two of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea,

[lines 845-849] through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt. The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea; and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about, at the rush of the deathless gods; and there arose an endless shaking.

[lines 850-854] Hades trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titans under Tartaros [the Pit] who live with Kronos, because of the unending clamor and the fearful strife. So when Zeus had raised up his might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning and lurid thunderbolt,

[lines 855-859] he leaped from Olympos and struck him, and burned all the marvelous heads of the monster about him. But when Zeus had conquered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth groaned. And flame shot forth from the thunder-stricken lord

[lines 860-864] in the dim rugged glens of the mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channeled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is softened

[lines 865-869] by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaistos. Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire. And in the bitterness of his anger Zeus cast him into wide Tartaros [the Pit]. And from Typhoeus come boisterous winds that blow damply,

[lines 870-874] except Notos [South Wind] and Boreas [North Wind] and clear Zephyros. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts;

[lines 875-879] for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below,

[lines 880-884] filling them with dust and cruel uproar. But when the blessed gods had finished their toil, and settled by force their struggle for honors with the Titans, they pressed far-seeing Olympian Zeus to reign and to rule over them, by Gaia's [Earth's] prompting. So he divided their dignities amongst them.

[lines 885-889] Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis his wife first, and she was wisest among gods and mortal men. But when she was about to bring forth the goddess bright-eyed Athene, Zeus craftily deceived her

[lines 890-894] with cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Gaia [Earth] and starry Ouranos [Heaven] advised. For they advised him so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway over the eternal gods in place of Zeus; for very wise children were destined to be born of her,

[lines 895-899] first the maiden bright-eyed Tritogeneia [Athene], equal to her father in strength and in wise understanding; but afterwards she was to bear a son of overbearing spirit, king of gods and men. But Zeus put her into his own belly first,

[lines 900-904] that the goddess might devise for him both good and evil. Next he married bright Themis who bare the Horae [Hours], and Eunomia [Order], Dike [Justice], and blooming Eirene [Peace], who mind the works of mortal men, and the Moirai [Destinies] to whom wise Zeus gave the greatest honor,

[lines 905-909] Klotho, and Lachesis, and Atropos who give mortal men evil and good to have. And Eurynome, the daughter of Okeanos [Ocean], beautiful in form, bare him three fair-cheeked Charites [Graces], Aglaia, and Euphrosyne, and lovely Thaleia,

[lines 910-914] from whose eyes as they glanced flowed love that unnerves the limbs; and beautiful is their glance beneath their brows. Also he came to the bed of all-nourishing Demeter, and she bare white-armed Persephone whom Aidoneus [Hades] carried off from her mother; but wise Zeus gave her to him.

[lines 915-919] And again, he loved Mnemosyne [Memory] with the beautiful hair; and of her the nine gold-crowned Muses were born who delight in feasts and the pleasures of song. And Leto was joined in love with Zeus who holds the aegis,

[lines 920-924] and bare Apollon and Artemis delighting in arrows, children lovely above all the sons of Ouranos [Heaven]. Lastly, he made Hera his blooming wife; and she was joined in love with the king of gods and men, and brought forth Hebe and Ares and Eileithyia. But Zeus himself gave birth from his own head to bright-eyed Tritogeneia [Athene],

[lines 925-929] the awful, the strife-stirring, the host-leader, the un-wearying, the queen, who delights in tumults and wars and battles. But Hera without union with Zeus—for she was very angry and quarreled with her mate—bare famous Hephaistos, who is skilled in crafts more than all the sons of Ouranos [Heaven].


Restored by Peppmüller. The following nineteen lines are from another recension of lines 889-900, 924-929 quoted by Chrysippus [in Galen].

[line 929a-d] But Hera was very angry and quarreled with her mate. And because of this strife she bare without union with Zeus who holds the aegis a glorious son, Hephaistos, who excelled all the sons of Ouranos [Heaven] in crafts.

[line 929e-i] But Zeus lay with the fair-cheeked daughter of Okeanos [Ocean] and Tethys apart from Hera ... deceiving Metis [Thought] although she was full wise. But he seized her with his hands and put her in his belly, for fear that she might bring forth something stronger than his thunderbolt;

[line 929j-n] therefore did Zeus, who sits on high and dwells in the aither, swallow her down suddenly. But she immediately conceived Pallas Athene; and the father of men and gods gave her birth by way of his head on the banks of the river Trito. And she remained hidden beneath the inward parts of Zeus,

[line 929o-t] even Metis, Athene's [Athena's] mother, worker of righteousness, who was wiser than gods and mortal men. There the goddess received that whereby she excelled in strength all the deathless ones who dwell in Olympos, she who made the host-scaring weapon of Athene. And with it Zeus gave her birth, arrayed in arms of war.


[lines 930-934] And of Amphitrite and the loud-roaring Earth-Shaker [Poseidon] was born great, wide-ruling Triton, and he owns the depths of the sea, living with his dear mother and the lord his father in their golden house, an awful god. Also Kytherea [Aphrodite] bare to Ares the shield-piercer Phobos [Panic] and Deimos [Fear],

[lines 935-939] terrible gods who drive in disorder the close ranks of men in numbing war, with the help of Ares, sacker of towns; and Harmonia whom high-spirited Kadmos made his wife. And Maia, the daughter of Atlas, bare to Zeus glorious Hermes, the herald of the deathless gods, for she went up into his holy bed.

[lines 940-944] And Semele, daughter of Kadmos was joined with him in love and bore him a splendid son, joyous Dionysos,—a mortal woman an immortal son. And now they both are gods. And Alkmene was joined in love with Zeus who drives the clouds and bare mighty Herakles.

[lines 945-949] And Hephaistos, the famous Lame One, made Aglaia, youngest of the Graces, his buxom wife. And golden-haired Dionysos made brown-haired Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, his buxom wife; and the son of Kronos made her deathless and unageing for him.

[lines 950-954] And mighty Herakles, the valiant son of neat-ankled Alkmene, when he had finished his grievous toils, made Hebe the child of great Zeus and gold-shod Hera his shy wife in snowy Olympos. Happy he! For he has finished his great works

[lines 955-959] and lives amongst the dying gods, untroubled and unaging all his days. And Perse, the daughter of Okeanos [Ocean], bare to unwearying Helios [Sun], Kirke [Circe] and Aietes the king. And Aietes, the son of Helios who shows light to men,

[lines 960-964] took to wife fair-cheeked Idyia, daughter of Okeanos [Ocean] the perfect stream, by the will of the gods; and she was subject to him in love through golden Aphrodite and bare him neat-ankled Medeia. And now farewell, you dwellers on Olympos and you islands and continents and thou briny sea within.

[lines 965-969] Now sing the company of goddesses, sweet-voiced Muses of Olympos, daughter of Zeus who holds the aegis,—even those deathless one who lay with mortal men and bare children like unto gods. Demeter, bright goddess, was joined in sweet love

[lines 970-974] with the hero Iasion in a thrice-ploughed fallow in the rich land of Crete, and bare Plutus, a kindly god who goes everywhere over land and the sea's wide back, and him who finds him and into whose hands he comes he makes rich, bestowing great wealth upon him.

[lines 975-979] And Harmonia, the daughter of golden Aphrodite, bare to Kadmos Ino and Semele and fair-cheeked Agaue and Autonoe whom long haired Aristaios wedded, and Polydorus also in rich-crowned Thebes. And the daughter of Okeanos [Ocean], Kallirhoe

[lines 980-984] was joined in the love of rich Aphrodite with stout hearted Chrysaor and bare a son who was the strongest of all men, Geryon, whom mighty Herakles killed in sea-girt Erytheia for the sake of his shambling oxen. And Eos [Dawn] bare to Tithonos brazen-crested Memnon,

[lines 985-989] king of the Ethiopians, and the Lord Emathion. And to Kephalos she bare a splendid son, strong Phaethon, a man like the gods, whom, when he was a young boy in the tender flower of glorious youth with childish thoughts, laughter-loving Aphrodite

[lines 990-994] seized and caught up and made a keeper of her shrine by night, a divine spirit. And the son of Aeson [Jason] by the will of the gods led away from Aietes the daughter of Aietes [Medeia] the heaven-nurtured king, when he had finished the many grievous labors

[lines 995-999] which the great king, over bearing Pelias, that outrageous and presumptuous doer of violence, put upon him. But when the son of Aeson [Jason] had finished them, he came to Iolkos after long toil bringing the coy-eyed girl [Medeia] with him on his swift ship, and made her his buxom wife.

[lines 1000-1004] And she was subject to Jason, shepherd of the people, and bare a son Medus whom Cheiron the son of Philyra brought up in the mountains. And the will of great Zeus was fulfilled. But of the daughters of Nereus, the Old man of the Sea, Psamathe the fair goddess,

[lines 1005-1009] was loved by Aiakos through golden Aphrodite and bare Phokos. And the silver-shod goddess Thetis was subject to Peleus and brought forth lion-hearted Achilles, the destroyer of men. And Kytherea [Aphrodite] with the beautiful crown was joined in sweet love with the hero Anchises and bar`e Aineias

[lines 1010-1014] on the peaks of Ida with its many wooded glens. And Kirke [Circe] the daughter of Helios [Sun], Hyperion's son, loved steadfast Odysseus and bare Agrios and Latinos who was faultless and strong; also she brought forth Telegonos by the will of golden Aphrodite.

[lines 1015-1019] And they ruled over the famous Tyrenians, very far off in a recess of the holy islands. And the bright goddess Kalypso was joined to Odysseus in sweet love, and bare him Nausithoos and Nausinoos.

[lines 1020-1022] These are the immortal goddesses who lay with mortal men and bare them children like unto gods. But now, sweet-voiced Muses of Olympos, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis, sing of the company of women.

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